Crested auklets have a wide variety of single and complex calls. Billing is "defined as pair courtship with mutual cackling vocal display. " It is a crucial part of successful pair formation and becomes harmonious once male and female partners are well acquainted. Trumpet calls are one of the most common advertising calls. The call represents a complex but stereotyped vocal sequence that is linked with a specific visual display. Between individuals, the calls differ in duration and frequency. Calls are primarily performed in males, but can also be seen in females. The call is particularly strong in widowed females. These calls stay stable from year to year, and individuals' specific calls are associated with the maintenance of long-term social bonds between pair mates and between neighbors. This suggests that trumpet calls can be used for both short-term and long-term individual recognition. Recognition of neighboring individuals' calls is advantageous because it minimizes energy expenditure on aggressive displays, and prevents conflict between neighbors and trusted individuals (the "dear enemy phenomenon").
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